Constructivism

Constructivism was the last and most influential modern art movement to flourish in Russia in the 20th century.

Construct – to built something

Constructivision was inspired by suprematism. It is an art movement that focus on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors.

Suprematism  is a theory that its about the understanding of shapes. This was invented by Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935).

kazimirmalevish

A Russian painter, who was the founder of the Suprematist school of abstract painting. He was trained at the Kiev School of Art and the Moscow Academy of Fine Arts. In his early work he followed Impressionism as well as Fauvism and after a trip to Paris in 1912, he was influenced by Picasso and cubism.

In 1913 Malevich created abstract geometrical patterns in a manner he called Suprematism.

 

Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956)

A Russian artist who founded contructivism. Rodchenko worked in many mediums including painting, graphic design and photography. By working in a wide range of media, he was one of the central figures of constructivism, a Russian abstract art movement that emerged in the period just before the Russian revolution of 1917.

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Structure (made out of basic shapes)

Photography – black and white, diagonals, contract, repetition, expressive

Posters – shapes, bold lines, solid colour, diagonals/symmetry, black and white photographs

 

alexander-rodchenko-shukhov-tower-web.jpgAlexander Rodchenko photography (Shuchov transmission tower), 1929

 

The Bauhaus (1919-1933)

1280px-BauhausType.jpg

The Bauhaus was founded in 1919 in the city of Weimar by German architect Walter Gropius. It was the most influential modernist art school of the 20th century, one whose approach to teaching, and understanding art’s relationship to society and technology, had a major impact both in Europe and the United States long after it closed.

 

2 Schools – Art School + Government School

1 Director – W. Gropius (Teachers)

Workshops:

Stone/Sculpture, Pottery, Weaving, Silver Smelting, Furniture, Printing, Stained Glass, Theatre, Colour Theory and other materials.

 

Dessau (1924-1931)

New building

New Mentality

Art + Crafts School – old masters left, new masters – ex students

 

Berlin (1931-1933)

Gropius was exiled

New director

Downfall

Control

Close down

 

Walter Gropius (1883-1969)

Walter Gropius

A famous German school of design that has inestimable influence on modern architecture, the industrial and graphic arts and theater design. It was founded in 1919 by the architect Walter Gropius. He was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright.

The bauhaus was based on the principles of the 19th century English designer William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement that art should meet the needs of society and that no distinction should be made between fine arts and practical crafts. Classes were offered in:

  • Crafts
  • Typography
  • Commercial
  • Industrial design
  • Sculpture
  • Painting
  • Architecture

The Bauhaus style, later also knows as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornament and ostentatious facades and by harmony between function and the artistic ad technical means employed.

In 1925 the school was moved into a group of starkly rectangular glass and concrete buildings in Dessau especially for it by Gropius. In Dessau the Bauhaus style became more strictly functional with greater emphasis on showing the beauty and suitability of basic, unadorned materials.

Startbild_bhd_bauhausdessau__DS_7178.jpgDessau

In 1930 the Bauhaus came under the direction of the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who moved it to Berlin in 1932, By 1933, when the school was closed by the Nazis, its principles and work were known worldwide. Many of tis faculty immigrated to the United States where the Bauhaus teachings came to dominate art and architecture for decades.

Startbild_Bauhaus-Archiv_Museum-fuer-Gestaltung_c-Bauhaus-Archiv_Foto-Werner-Huthmacher.jpg_1272394746Berlin

 

References:

The Art Story – Constructivism – http://www.theartstory.org/movement-constructivism.htm

The Bauhaus – Alexandra Griffith Winton – August 2007 – http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bauh/hd_bauh.htm

Reframing Photography – Alexander Rodchenko – http://www.reframingphotography.com/resources/alexander-rodchenko

 

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